Background and Raw Materials

Dynamite is a commercial explosive used mainly for demolition and mining.
Invented in 1866 by Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896), it is more
accurately described as the packaging of nitroglycerin, a highly poisonous
explosive liquid, or other volatile compounds such as sensitized ammonium
nitrate. Dynamites can be packed in measured charges, transported easily,
and, with the proper detonator, exploded safely. Because a dynamite
explosion creates a “cool flame,” which is less likely to
ignite methane and coal dust mixtures present in mines, dynamites are
frequently used in coal mining operations.

History

Alfred Nobel, his father Immanuel, and younger brother Emil began
experimenting with nitroglycerin near Stockholm in 1862. Discovered by
Italian chemist Ascario Sobrero in 1846, nitroglycerin was highly unstable
and difficult to handle, and accidental explosions were not uncommon. One
such accident killed Emil, among others, at a plant in 1864. Despite the
personal tragedy, Alfred

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Background

Pretzels are a snack food, which have unique shapes and a hard, shiny
outer surface. They are mass produced using primarily automated machinery.
First developed in the seventh century, pretzels have been called one of
the world’s oldest snack food. A recent market survey found that
the pretzel market in the United States is about $560 million a year with
over 300 million lb (136.2 million kg) of pretzels and pretzel products
being produced. The pretzel market has grown in recent years because
pretzels are considered a more healthy, fat-free snack.

The unique, two looped, knot shape of a pretzel is one of its defining
characteristics. The typical pretzel has a pleasant cracker-like flavor, a
crisp, brittle texture and a brown glossy surface color. Salt crystals are
often sprinkled on its surface to make them taste more appealing. Pretzels
have a moisture content of anywhere from 2-4% and therefore

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Background

For centuries humankind has relied upon various plants and animals to
provide the raw materials for fabrics and clothing. Silkworms, sheep,
beaver, buffalo deer, and even palm leaves are just some of the natural
resources that have been used to meet these needs. However, in the last
century scientists have turned to chemistry and technology to create and
enhance many of the fabrics we now take for granted.

There are two main categories of man-made fibers: those that are made from
natural products (cellulosic fibers) and those that are synthesized solely
from chemical compounds (noncellulosic polymer fibers). Rayon is a
natural-based material that is made from the cellulose of wood pulp or
cotton. This natural base gives it many of the characteristics—low
cost, diversity, and comfort—that have led to its popularity and
success. Today, rayon is considered to be one of the most versatile and
economical man-made fibers available.

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