Advertising: Pay to Play

A 1900 advertisement for Pears soap.

Advertising is any paid form of communication from an identified sponsor or source that draws attention to ideas, goods, services or the sponsor itself. Most advertising is directed toward groups rather than individuals, and advertising is usually delivered through media such as television, radio, newspapers and, increasingly, the Internet. Ads are often measured in impressions (the number of times a consumer is exposed to an advertisement).

Advertising is a very old form of promotion with roots that go back even to ancient times. In recent decades, the practices of advertising have changed enormously as new technology and media have allowed consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues. From the invention of the remote control, which allows people to ignore advertising on TV without leaving the couch, to recording devices that let people watch TV programs but skip the ads, conventional advertising

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Learning Outcome

  • Differentiate between leadership, informational, and decision-making roles.

Roles and functions of managers in a top-down organizational structure

We have discussed the types (levels) of managers and some of their responsibilities but not their specific activities. All managers must be comfortable with three main types of activities or roles. To do their jobs, managers assume these different roles. No manager stays in any one role all of the time, but shifts back and forth. These roles are leadership (or interpersonal), informational, and decision making. They were written about in detail in the 1970s by Henry Mintzberg, a professor at McGill University in Canada. His classifications are still one of the most studied descriptors of management roles today.

Leadership and Interpersonal Roles

Which type of manager spends more time in leadership activities? The short answer is all effective managers display leadership characteristics. Leadership is the ability to communicate a vision

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Bill Davis, MA, CM, core faculty and program chair for the online degree programs in the Forbes School of Business & Technology at The University of Arizona Global Campus, shares his key management principles.

According to Steve Jobs, “Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple.” By understanding and learning to apply these universal principles, you are more likely to excel as a manager in any organization. Here’s what you will learn from reading this blog:

Principle No. 1: The Functions of Management

While managers often view their work as task or supervisory in orientation, this view is an illusion. 

At the most fundamental level, management is a discipline that consists of a set of five general functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. These five functions are part of a body of practices and theories on how

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Reviewed by Brian Richardson, Adjunct Faculty, University of Hawaii at Manoa on 8/21/16

Comprehensiveness
rating:
3
see less

In the introduction to Principles of Management, the authors state that there are three themes in the book: strategic thinking, entrepreneurial thinking, and active management. The entrepreneurial theme is not as prevalent as their introduction would suggest. There is some discussion of creativity, although references to writers and books beyond the single book by Edward De Bono would have enhanced the section.
Sections that stand out as useful include the discussions of fairness, groupthink, employee performance review, and predictors of job performance. Some sub-sections and minor topics should have been separate sections with more details, such as the discussion of meetings, of interviewing, and of HR rules and policies. Finally, sections that would have useful additions to the textbook include how to write a good survey, how to deal with very difficult

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Marketing principles or principles of marketing are agreed-upon marketing ideas companies use for an effective marketing strategy. They are the principles upon which we build product promotion strategies. We can use the marketing principles for the effective promotion of either goods or services.

Some companies may follow the 4Ps Strategy (or 4P Strategy). The term ‘4Ps’ stands for product, price, place, and promotion. Some people refer to it as the 4P Marketing Matrix.

Other companies, on the other hand, may have built up their own marketing principles. In most cases, they are the same as or vary slightly from the 4P strategy.

Marketing principles – 4P Strategy/Matrix

The principle of the 4P Marketing Strategy or Matrix is that marketing decisions tend to fall into four categories – product, place, price, and promotion. We refer to them as four ‘controllable‘ categories. They

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Learning Outcome

  • Describe what management is.

Constructing a pyramid was one of history’s earliest management goals.

Management is everywhere. Any time people work to achieve a goal, they are engaging in management. At least as far back as the building of pyramids in ancient Egypt or Mesoamerica, people have used principles of management to achieve goals. Today, organizations of all types—social, political, and economic—use management techniques to plan and organize their activities.

Two Aspects of Management

When people talk about management, they may be referring to very different aspects. They may be talking about the people who are the managers, especially those people in strategic positions who make important decisions for the organization, such as the executive officers, president, or general manager. Or, they may be referring to the activities and functions of an organization to achieve organizational goals.

Management As People

The people with the responsibility and authority

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