Planning means looking ahead and chalking out future courses of action to be followed. It is a preparatory step. It is a systematic activity which determines when, how and who is going to perform a specific job. Planning is a detailed programme regarding future courses of action.

It is rightly said “Well plan is half done”. Therefore planning takes into consideration available & prospective human and physical resources of the organization so as to get effective co-ordination, contribution & perfect adjustment. It is the basic management function which includes formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources.

According to Urwick, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses”. Planning is deciding best alternative among others to perform different managerial

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Learning Outcome

  • Differentiate between leadership, informational, and decision-making roles.

Roles and functions of managers in a top-down organizational structure

We have discussed the types (levels) of managers and some of their responsibilities but not their specific activities. All managers must be comfortable with three main types of activities or roles. To do their jobs, managers assume these different roles. No manager stays in any one role all of the time, but shifts back and forth. These roles are leadership (or interpersonal), informational, and decision making. They were written about in detail in the 1970s by Henry Mintzberg, a professor at McGill University in Canada. His classifications are still one of the most studied descriptors of management roles today.

Leadership and Interpersonal Roles

Which type of manager spends more time in leadership activities? The short answer is all effective managers display leadership characteristics. Leadership is the ability to communicate a vision

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A new service provider has been appointed to supply kits for the DNA testing, SAPS confirmed. (Getty Images)

  • DNA testing is expected to resume after it came to a halt earlier this year.
  • A new service provider has been appointed to supply kits for tests, according to police.
  • The police have also launched a system to track and trace forensic evidence.

The system used to track and trace forensic evidence in police investigations is “fully up and running”, according to the police.

It was reported that police “lost” about eight million pieces of evidence after IT service provider Forensic Data Analysts (FDA) shut down their Property Control and Exhibit Management (PCEM) system in June 2020.

But police spokesperson Brigadier Vishnu Naidoo said on Monday that the exhibits were not lost. Instead, the exhibits had been stored and could only be accessed manually.

The dispute with FDA dates back

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Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.

Chances are good that, at some time in your life, you’ve taken a time management class, read about it in books, and tried to use an electronic or paper-based day planner to organize, prioritize and schedule your day. “Why, with this knowledge and these gadgets,” you may ask, “do I still feel like I can’t get everything done I need to?”

The answer is simple. Before you can even begin to manage time, you must learn what time is. A dictionary defines time as “the point or period at which things occur.” Put simply, time is when stuff happens.

There are two types of time: clock time and real time. In clock time, there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day and 365 days in a year.

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*Due to COVID-19 the Subpoena Management Unit will be working at a reduced capacity and will not be accepting personal service of subpoenas from 18/03/2020 until further notice.

Service of subpoenas will only be accepted via email to:

Hard copies of subpoenas with compliance fees to are to be posted to:

Subpoena Management Unit. Level 2, 456 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. 3000

For enquiries please contact us via email on

The Subpoena Management Unit (SMU) forms part of the Victoria Police Legal Services Department. The SMU is the central management point for all subpoenas served on Victoria Police.

The Unit’s primary responsibility is to:

  • receive
  • assess
  • coordinate
  • monitor subpoenas to ensure compliance.

The SMU provides a co-ordination and monitoring role where subpoenas are recorded on a central database and distributed for appropriate action. The Unit has implemented compliance monitoring initiatives and provides Victoria Police staff with access to appropriate

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After reading this article you will learn about Management:- 1. Concept of Management 2. Definitions of Management 3. Process 4. Principles 5. Comments.

Concept of Management:

One way to analyse management is to think in terms of what a manager does. Using this approach, we can arrive at the management process which describes the work of any manager.

The management work can divided into a few basic functions of management, viz:

(1) Planning,

(2) Organising,

(3) Directing,

(4) Controlling.

Planning is the determination of objectives and formulation of plans, strategies, programmes, policies, procedures and standards needed to achieve the desired organisation objectives. To implement the plans there must be some organisation structure.

The human and material resources or inputs are allocated to the various units and relationships are established among the sub-units. Organising is the second function of a manager. Organising is the process of developing a structure among people,

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Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.

Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”.

According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted

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© Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC.

Comprehensive, practical book by Carter McNamara

The guidelines and resources in this topic are not sufficient to develop
strong competencies in management. Those competencies come from extensive experience
in applying that information.

Sections of This Topic Include

What is Management?
— Traditional View of Management
— Common Terms, Levels and Roles in Management
— Is Leading Different Than Managing?

To Truly Understand Management, Know Its Broad Context
— Different Levels and Roles of Management
— Historical Theories
— New Paradigm in Management
— Contemporary Theories

How to Do Traditional Functions in Management
— Planning
— Organizing
— Leading
— Controlling / Coordinating

How to Manage Yourself, Groups and Organizations
— Suggested Core Competencies to Manage in Any Situation
— How to Manage Yourself
— How to Manage a Group
— How to Manage an Organization

How to Manage Nonprofit-Specific Activities


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square What is Management? Definitions

According to Harold Koontz,

“Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups.”

Harold Koontz gave this definition of management in his book “The Management Theory Jungle“.

According to Henri Fayol,

“To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”

Henri Fayol gave this definition of management in his book “Industrial and General Administration“.

management definition meaning features

Image Credits © Michael Heiss.

According to Peter Drucker,

“Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business and manages managers and manages workers and work.”

This definition of management was given by Peter Drucker in his book “The Principles of Management“.

According to Mary Parker Follet,

“Management is the art of getting things done through people.”

square Meaning of Management

According to Theo Heimann, management has three

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CHICAGO, April 8, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — Sikich announced Thursday that it will acquire the assets of Process Stream, a leader in digital transformation services for regulated industries, including life sciences and insurance. Process Stream specializes in quality management, IT compliance, and insurtech systems implementations and consulting.

“Increased regulation, more exacting customer demands and enhanced competition will force organizations across industries to improve their quality management efforts in the coming years,” said Ryan Spohn, CFO and leader of Sikich’s business advisory services. “The addition of Process Stream expands our existing technology services and industry expertise and enables us to meet these evolving needs for clients across regulated industries.”

Process Stream offers holistic support for organizations’ digital transformation roadmaps. The company implements, manages, and optimizes quality and claims systems and their associated processes for innovative global pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device, and insurance organizations. The Process Stream team includes system engineers,

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