Photo by: George Muresan
The functions of management uniquely describe managers’ jobs. The
most commonly cited functions of management are planning, organizing,
leading, and controlling, although some identify additional functions. The
functions of management define the process of management as distinct from
accounting, finance, marketing, and other business functions. These
functions provide a useful way of classifying information about
management, and most basic management texts since the 1950s have been
organized around a functional framework.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL
APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT
Henri Fayol was the first person to identify elements or functions of
management in his classic 1916 book
Administration Industrielle et Generale.
Fayol was the managing director of a large French coal-mining firm and
based his book largely on his experiences as a practitioner of management.
Fayol defined five functions, or elements of management: planning,
organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Fayol argued that
these functions were universal, in