Background

Titanium is known as a transition metal on the periodic table of elements
denoted by the symbol Ti. It is a lightweight, silver-gray material with
an atomic number of 22 and an atomic weight of 47.90. It has a density of
4510 kg/m

3

, which is somewhere between the densities of aluminum and stainless
steel. It has a melting point of roughly 3,032°F (1,667°C) and a
boiling point of 5,948°F (3,287 C). It behaves chemically similar to
zirconium and silicon. It has excellent corrosion resistance and a high
strength to weight ratio.

Titanium is the fourth most abundant metal making up about 0.62% of the
earth’s crust. Rarely found in its pure form, titanium typically
exists in minerals such as anatase, brookite, ilmenite, leucoxene,
perovskite, rutile, and sphene. While titanium is relatively abundant, it
continues to be expensive because it is difficult to isolate. The leading
producers of

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Background

A nail consists of a metal rod or shank, pointed at one end and usually
having a formed head at the other, that can be hammered into pieces of
wood or other materials to fasten them together. A nail is usually made of
steel, although it can be made of aluminum, brass, or many other metals.
The surface can be coated or plated to improve its corrosion resistance,
gripping strength, or decorative appearance. The head, shank, and point
may have several shapes based on the intended function of the nail. Of the
nearly 300 types of nails made in the United States today, most are used
in residential housing construction. The average wood frame house uses
between 20,000 and 30,000 nails of various types and sizes.

Nails are divided into three broad categories based on their length. In
general nails under 1 inch (2.5 cm) in length are called

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